Airspace Infringement and Navigation
From SKYbrary Wiki
Airspace infringement occurs when an aircraft penetrates airspace for which explicit prior clearance is required without having such a clearance.
A major cause of airspace infringement is poor navigation, leading to penetration of the controlled airspace or danger, restricted, prohibited, temporary segregated or temporary reserved area concerned.
This situation may arise either because the pilots are uncertain of their position or because they are unaware of the designation of the area concerned because of inadequate briefing or their use of out-of-date charts.
- Loss of Separation from other aircraft, which may result in collision.
- Exposure to danger from military hazards, e.g. radiation, gun-firing or manoeuvring high-performance aircraft.
- Perceived security risk, if prohibited area is penetrated, which may result in a military response.
- Damage to ground installations within prohibited areas, including vulnerable animals.
- Disruption of military or other special activities within restricted, danger or prohibited airspace.
- Improved training in navigation techniques, including:
- Good ATC radar coverage, particularly Air Traffic Services Outside Controlled Airspace, where such exist.
- Aircraft Transponders to enable aircraft to be identified by ATS and to enable Airborne Collision Avoidance System (ACAS) avoiding action to be taken.
- Accurate, easy to use aircraft navigation systems e.g. Global Positioning System (GPS) (GPS).
- STCA (STCA).
- Area Proximity Warning (APW).
- An aircraft operating Visual Flight Rules (VFR) and approaching controlled airspace with the intention of obtaining crossing clearance mis-identifies a position on the ground due to partial cloud cover and enters the controlled airspace without permission.
- A pilot navigating by reference to VHF Omnidirectional Radio Range (VOR) beacons makes an error in determining his position, alters heading on this basis and enters a Prohibited Area.
- A pilot using GPS incorrectly programmes the equipment and follows a track which diverges from the planned route, resulting in violation of a Danger Area.
- A pilot using an out of date chart enters the area concerned without awareness because it is not marked on the chart being used.
- B738 / C172, en route, near Falsterbo Sweden, 2014 (On 20 July 2014, the pilot of a VFR Cessna 172 became distracted and entered the Class 'C' controlled airspace of two successive TMAs without clearance. In the second one he was overtaken by a Boeing 738 inbound to Copenhagen with less than 90 metres separation. The 738 crew reported a late sighting of the 172 and "seemingly" assessed that avoiding action was unnecessary. Although the 172 had a Mode C-capable transponder, it was not transmitting altitude prior to the incident and the Investigation noted that this had invalidated preventive ATC and TCAS safety barriers and compromised flight safety.)
- P46T, vicinity Son Bonet Palma de Mallorca Spain, 2002 (On 19 December 2002, a Piper PA-46 Malibu, after takeoff from Son Bonet Aerodrome, penetrated the control zone (CTR) of Palma de Mallorca tower. The pilot was instructed to leave the CTR and the aircraft headed towards mountainous terrain to the north of the island where the flight conditions were below the VFR minimum. In level flight the aircraft impacted terrain at an altitude of 2000 ft killing all three occupants.)
- Inadequate basic training in appropriate navigational techniques;
- Lack of expertise of VFR private pilots in equipment operation, especially GPS;
- Adverse weather;
- Inadequate pre-flight preparation.
- Routine (assumption that airspace restrictions on a familiar route will not change).
- Improved training in navigational techniques, equipment operation and pre-flight preparation;
- Improved, easier to use, light aircraft navigation systems, especially GPS integrated with other aircaft navigational aids
- European Airspace Infringement Action Plan
- Airspace Infringement and Briefing
- Airspace Infringement and Communication
- Airspace Infringement: Guidance Notes for GA Pilots
- Introduction of Glass Cockpit Avionics into Light Aircraft: NTSB Safety Study.
EUROCONTROL Airspace Infringement Initiative
- European Action Plan for Airspace Infringement Risk Reduction
- Airspace Infringement Risk Analysis Part II GA Airspace Infringement Survey
- Airspace Infringement Initiative website
EUROCONTROL Guidance Notes for GA pilots
- Rules for VFR flight
- Flight preparation
- Getting aeronautical information before flight
- Reading and understanding NOTAMS
- Getting meteorological information before flight
- Reading and understanding weather reports and forecasts
- Using meteorological information for planning
- Visual navigation
- VOR/DME/ADF Navigation
- GPS Navigation
- Getting aeronautical and meteorological information in flight
- Entering controlled airspace
- Getting the most out of your transponder
- Airspace & Safety Initiative
- General Aviation Safety Sense Leaflets
- On Track - A Confidential Airspace Infringement Project