Airspace Infringement and Briefing
From SKYbrary Wiki
Airspace infringement occurs when an aircraft penetrates an area into which special clearance is required without having such clearance.
A major cause of airspace infringement is lack of awareness of the presence of the controlled airspace or danger, restricted or prohibited area concerned, or of its significance. This is usually due to poor pre-flight briefing.
- Loss of Separation from other aircraft, which may result in collision.
- Exposure to danger from military hazards, e.g. radiation, gun-firing or manoeuvring high-performance aircraft.
- Perceived security risk, if prohibited area is penetrated, which may result in military action.
- Damage to ground installations within prohibited areas, including vulnerable animals.
- Disruption of military or other special activities within restricted, danger or prohibited airspace.
- Adequate pre-flight briefing.
- Good ATC radar coverage, particularly Air Traffic Services Outside Controlled Airspace, where such exist.
- Aircraft Transponders to enable aircraft to be identified by ATS and to enable Airborne Collision Avoidance System (ACAS) avoiding action to be taken.
- STCA (STCA).
- Area Proximity Warning (APW).
- A pilot plans a flight along a route, avoiding sensitive airspace. Due to a navigational error he deviates from his intended track and penetrates a danger area which he had not plotted on his chart;
- A pilot plans to fly beneath an airway but fails to note the lower level of activity. Due to weather, he climbs and enters the airway.
- Insufficient emphasis on the importance of pre-flight briefing during training;
- Lack of, or difficult to use briefing facilities at the departure aerodrome;
- Inaccurate navigation;
- Improve airspace infringement awareness;
- Improve standard of pilot training including emphasis on the importance of pre-flight briefing;
- Develop technological solutions such as Area Proximity Warning (APW) and radar coverage, especially Lower Airspace Radar Service, in areas prone to airspace infringement;
- Review airspace design where airspace infringement occurs with the objective of removing the cause of incidents, e.g. choke areas.
- European Airspace Infringement Action Plan
- Airspace Infringement and Communication
- Airspace Infringement and Navigation
- Airspace Infringement: Guidance Notes for GA Pilots
EUROCONTROL Airspace Infringement Initiative
- European Action Plan for Airspace Infringement Risk Reduction;
- Airspace Infringement Risk Analysis Part II;
- Airspace Infringement Initiative website
EUROCONTROL Guidance Notes for GA pilots
- Rules for VFR flight;
- Flight preparation;
- Getting aeronautical information before flight;
- Reading and understanding NOTAMS;
- Getting meteorological information before flight;
- Reading and understanding weather reports and forecasts;
- Using meteorological information for planning;
- Visual navigation;
- VOR/DME/ADF Navigation;
- GPS Navigation;
- Getting aeronautical and meteorological information in flight;
- Entering controlled airspace;
- Getting the most out of your transponder;
- Decision Making for General Aviation Pilots, EGAST Safety Promotion Leaflet, April 2011;